In this article, Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky and Alan Gartner discuss recent developments in special education and measure them against their inclusionary model. This article expands and updates their 1987 HER article, "Beyond Special Education: Toward a Quality System for All Students," a review of the implementation of PL 94-142, which, though the basis for placement in the least restrictive environment, in fact provided legal support for the development of separate educational systems for students with special needs. Here, Lipsky and Gartner continue their argument that the special education model must not separate those with special needs. They argue that inclusion provides all students with a quality education that is both individual and integrated, citing recent court cases that support their contention that all students can and should be educated in the same classroom. Lipsky and Gartner conclude by showing how their inclusionary model adds to the school restructuring debate, which until now has excluded any mention of students with disabilities. They believe that special education should be viewed as a matter of social justice and equity, and see inclusion as a way of both restructuring education and remaking American society.

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