In this article, Susan Kardos speaks to the importance of education by looking at the forms and purposes of clandestine schooling in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust. Building on archival evidence and survivor accounts, Kardos recreates the moving spirit and multiple endeavors of schooling that prevailed in the Ghetto. Despite horrific conditions and great danger, individuals and organizations within the Ghetto devoted themselves to ensuring that educational activities would continue. According to Kardos, schooling became a form of resistance against Nazi attempts to eradicate the Jews and their culture. She argues that schooling was oriented simultaneously to the past, present, and future: to the past by defying cultural and historical annihilation; to the present by providing a sense of normalcy that helped Jews survive their daily struggles in the Ghetto; and to the future by providing a sense of hope for the Ghetto inhabitants. Kardos unearths this heroic and inspiring historical episode to illustrate the importance of schooling as a means of survival and resistance by people who would not allow themselves to be erased.

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