Although research has extensively documented sources for differential item functioning and stereotype threat—especially among women and black college students—little is known about group differences in test-taking strategies among black adolescent students. In this article, Arbuthnot presents findings from two studies that seek to explore how stereotype threat affects standardized test performance in mathematics among black eighth-grade students. The author contextualizes the studies in a discussion of prior research and presents findings from an analysis of black students'test performances on standardized mathematics exam questions that do and do not include differential item functioning. Arbuthnot complements this work by exploring the strategies test-takers use to process test items. Findings from the two studies suggest that stereotype threat may have a negative impact on black adolescent students'test-taking strategies and achievement on mathematics standardized tests. The author concludes the article by posing implications for new test development that takes into consideration the potential impact of stereotype threat.

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