Even without the benefit of peer-reviewed research, anyone who has experienced school can describe a teacher who was effective in challenging, inspiring, encouraging, and instructing them, as well as one who frustrated or disappointed them. Among administrators and teacher trainers there is the widely held belief that we can recognize effective teaching when we see it. And yet, even with decades of research, we still grapple with the basic questions: What does it mean to be an effective teacher? How do we tell which teachers are the most and least effective? What can we do to improve teacher effectiveness?

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