We describe the external morphology of the tadpole of the frog Physalaemus moreirae. We also provide a review of internal oral features, chondrocrania, and a characterization of the genus based on larval traits. The internal oral features and the external morphology of P. moreirae are most similar to P. jordanensis, a species allocated to the P. gracilis group. None of the larval traits supports the current intrageneric arrangement of species, because several features are shared by species belonging to different species groups. We argue for the inclusion of larval traits in future phylogenetic studies in order to understand the evolution of larval characters.