We present a synthesis of anuran diversity and distribution in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range, one of the largest mountain ranges occurring within the Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil. We assembled a species list based on the examination of 16,893 specimens housed in 10 herpetological collections and data compiled from the literature. We developed minimum convex polygons for each species to determine their degree of association with the mountain range, and assessed distribution patterns considering species presence–absence in nearby geomorphological units. The northern and southern sectors of the mountain range were examined for differences in species composition, accounting for possible effects of the main vegetation types of the range. We recorded 234 anuran species (∼23% of total anuran richness for Brazil), including 143 core species, 89 species of marginal occurrence, and 2 species with an undetermined degree of association because of taxonomic uncertainties. Of these species, 91 were widespread and occur throughout the Atlantic Forest and in other regions, 53 were not widespread but range into neighboring geomorphological units, and 88 were endemic species. The northern and southern sectors of the mountain range differed in species composition, which was influenced by the different vegetation types. Thirty-nine endemic species were restricted to the southern sector, whereas 45 occurred only in the northern sector, indicating that these sectors potentially represent distinct biogeographic units with regard to the anurans. We found 14 species that are listed among the categories of both global and national lists of threatened species and 10 species whose most recent records date from at least 30 yr ago. Our study confirms that the Mantiqueira Range is a critical region for anuran endemism and conservation in the Atlantic Forest, and provides a baseline for future biogeographic, taxonomic, and macroecological studies.