The genus Corythomantis was monotypic for over 100 yr, encompassing only the species C. greeningi. In 2012, a second species, C. galeata, was described, but this species was recently reassigned to Nyctimantis, rendering Corythomantis once again monotypic. The geographic distribution of C. greeningi covers the Caatinga and Cerrado biomes from northeast Brazil, with a western limit in Tocantins state and a southern limit in Minas Gerais state. Here we demonstrate the existence of a second species of Corythomantis through molecular, acoustic, and morphological data. The new species differs in morphology from C. greeningi in head shape and tibia coloration. The new species has an advertisement call with shorter duration, higher pulse rate, and different acoustic structure. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) data show a genetic divergence from C. greeningi of 2.88% in the 16S ribosomal DNA gene and 14.06% in the cytochrome oxidase I gene. The geographic distribution of the new species is restricted to the Espinhaço Mountain Range at elevations from 315 to 930 m above sea level.

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