We review morphology of Sunda Shelf Gonocephalus with an emphasis on Sumatran and Javan species. At least 15 species and subspecies inhabit Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and adjacent smaller continental islands. Following analysis of external morphology, we provide a dichotomous key to Sunda Shelf Gonocephalus and resolve two taxonomic problems with this group of lizards. Three populations of Gonocephalus doriae on Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra are recognized as subspecies, because they lack concordance of multiple morphological differences and have low genetic divergence in a 556 base-pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Described as new herein, G. doriae brevis from Aceh and North Sumatra differs from G. d. abbotti and G. d. doriae in usually having more scales around midbody and a relatively shorter tail with fewer dark bands. Though previously reported as lost, a syntype of G. d. doriae (MSNG 29152) is designated as lectotype, illustrated, and described. Also described as new, G. inauris from high elevations of the Bukit Barisan Range of Bengkulu, Sumatra, is a species of the G. megalepis Group differing from all congeners in having 7/6 (vs. 8–19) loreals separating the last canthal and supralabials, 8/8 (11–27) infraorbitals, and 58 (73–153) scales around midbody. In this new species, distinctly enlarged suboculars broadly contact its supralabials, whereas 1–4 lorilabials separate the suboculars and supralabials in congeners. High genetic divergence in the new species mirrors its high level of morphological divergence.