Research on the determinants of the distribution of income among individuals has indicated that several aspects of state power as well as various sociodemographic characteristics have considerable impact. Using cross-national data, this paper finds that external power and political and bureaucratic strength both have significant direct effects on income distributions, acting to make them more equal. Among sociodemographic characteristics, education is found to have significant effects on income inequality by increasing the income shares of the upper-middle income group at the expense of the poorest income group.

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