Contemporary rural anthropology, both applied and ethnographic, often takes place in situations of extreme political and class conflict. Despite recent debates over reflexivity and ethics generally in such studies, the methodological problems of doing fieldwork under conditions of class conflict rarely figure into the debate; this is particularly true of southern Europe. These problems are at once personal, moral, epistemological, and methodological. This paper describes one fieldworker's efforts to maintain scholarly neutrality in an agro-town in Franco Spain where class conflict was severe. The implications of this experience for critical anthropology and for applied anthropology are discussed.

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