The appropriate relationship between efforts to conserve biological diversity and promote development initiatives that contribute to improving the quality of life of indigenous people has proven contentious, and discussions often seemed more oriented toward staking out positions than defining areas of shared interest upon which alliances that could shape rural land use might be constructed. The Capitanía de Alto y Bajo Isoso, the indigenous organization representing the interests of the Guaraní people in the Isoso region of Bolivia’s Chaco, and the Wildlife Conservation Society, a US-based conservation organization, have developed a partnership over the course of more than 15 years, which has made important contributions to conserving biological diversity and supporting the initiatives of indigenous people to improve their quality of life. This article discusses what have been crucial elements in building and maintaining the partnership, and suggests lessons that might be applied in other settings

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