Case studies are often presented as self-evident. However, of what the material is a case is actually less evident. It is argued in this article that the analytical movements of generalization, specification, abstraction, and concretization can make us more conscious of what our work might be a case, and that the same data have the potential to make different cases depending on these analytical movements. An analytical matrix is developed, and the four movements and various pitfalls are discussed.

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