This paper analyses the basic features and transformations of the ontology and related lifeworlds of the Mosetene people in the co-management context of the Pilón Lajas Indigenous Territory and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Our results, based on anthropological fieldwork, showed the Mosetene to be perspectivist, perceiving themselves to be embedded in the forest as part of a web of social relationships linking human and non-human societies. Mosetene are experiencing rapid changes in sociopolitical organization due to increased interaction with actors representing other, dominant ontological communities. The related transformation of the Mosetene worldview is affecting natural resource use. We argue that co-management must address the asymmetries and contradictions related to this encounter of ontologies, in order to reconcile Mostene lifeworlds and biodiversity conservation efforts. Strengthening the position of the elders within the indigenous organization and establishing an inter-ontological dialogue platform among all stakeholders could provide the conditions under which the Mosetene can reenact their communication with the forest's non-human societies while becoming active subjects in the governance of the Indigenous Territory and Biosphere Reserve.

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