Non-heterosexual families have emerged as a distinct social group since the Spanish Government approved same-sex marriage in 2005, including the right to adoption. While some same-sex couples have their children through intercountry adoption, legal restrictions limiting non-heterosexual families in most sending countries, among other factors, push same-sex couples to have their children through Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ARTs) and transnational surrogacy, particularly in the United States. However, once non-heterosexual Spanish people make the decision to become parents, they must face homophobic attitudes and policies in their processes of becoming parents, which contributes to delaying their family formation. Based on ethnographic data, this paper focuses on how national and transnational conditions affect non-heterosexual family formation in Spain. In doing so, global/local economies, national/international policies, as well as gender, class, citizenship, and legitimacy are considered.

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