The following persons with intellectual disabilities confessed to serious crimes—murder, rape, arson, and robbery. Later, the legal system found them innocent of the crimes to which they confessed. Presently, the list names 38 individuals. Thanks to advancing forensic practices, more names are being added to this list every month. For example, DNA has recently excluded 3 more wrong-person convictions, but they will not be listed until the courts rule. The search gives rise to six factors that may be well worth pondering:

This list was created after a three-way sharing of files between law professor Steven Drizin, criminologist Richard Leo, and myself. The idea of making such a compilation was inspired by what they wrote in their groundbreaking work on false confession in a post-DNA (Drizin & Leo, 2004). Anyone discovering similar cases are urged to contact me at


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