Social Role Valorization (SRV), which interprets personal image and competencies as important because they are the two broad avenues to valued roles, has been described in this Journal (Wolfensberger, 2000), but the most extensive up-to-date elaboration of SRV can be found in Wolfensberger (1998) and Race (1999). However, there are other human development or service-related theories that focus on virtually nothing but competencies, and not even as means to valued roles, but as virtual ends in themselves. Behavioral schemes have tended to do this. According to them, much of human service should be one consequation after another designed to increase competencies, often by overcoming competing competencies, such as manipulative or destructive behaviors.

The problem with any purely, or primarily, competency-oriented service or living scheme that ignores not only social imagery but also roles is that it can produce what...

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