Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver–child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant developmental delays and their teachers in the second study. Caregivers engaged the children in learning games characterized by behavior-based contingencies for 15 weeks. Research staff observed the children and their caregivers in everyday routines and activities and rated child and caregiver behavior while the children and caregivers were not playing the games. Results from both studies showed that the degree of response-contingent responding during the games was related to child and caregiver behavior, not the focus of the contingency learning opportunities afforded the children. Implications for practice are described.