The U.S. approach to the health of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is fraught with paradox. The health of this population has been of longstanding concern, yet we understand their health less well than many other groups. The U.S. spends much more per person on the well-being of people with IDD compared to the general population, yet the outcomes of those expenditures are disappointing and include significant preventable health disparities. Even as expectations for people with IDD have changed to include better health and greater participation in their communities, eligibility for services that support these outcomes is rooted in expectations of dependence and poverty. This article is a call for better data that considers a series of questions to provide context for understanding the need and directions for better health surveillance of people with IDD.