Statistics reported by states for state Fiscal Year (FY) 2006 indicate that for the first time less than 30% of persons receiving out-of-family residential supports for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) lived in homes with more than 6 residents. During the year the number of persons living in institutional settings for 16 or more persons with ID/DD decreased to 15% of all residents, greatly less than the 59% reported by states 2 decades earlier in 1986. Figure 1 shows changes in the decade between June 1996 and June 2006 in the number of people receiving out-of-family residential supports for persons with ID/DD in settings of different sizes. During the decade the total number of residential support recipients increased by slightly more than 100,000 or 31%. Between 1996 and 2006, the number of people receiving residential supports in places of 3 or fewer people with ID/DD increased by about 140%, from an estimated 81,300 to 195,400. During the decade, there were relatively modest increases in the number of people living in homes with 4 to 6 residents (a net gain of about 12,600 persons or 13.8%) and in residents of places with 7 to 15 residents (a net gain of about 4,160 people or 7.4%). During the decade, the number of people living in facilities with 16 or more residents with ID/DD decreased by about 30,500 (32.0%).

Table 1 summarizes these national trends by state. It shows the number of persons receiving out-of-family residential supports for persons with ID/ DD in settings of 6 or fewer, 7 to 15 and 16 or more residents on June 30, 1996, and June 2006. It also shows the net change during the decade in the total number of people living in places of 6 or fewer and of 16 or more residents. As shown, between 1996 and 2006, every state showed net increases in the number of people living in places of 6 or fewer residents. All but 2 states had net decreases in the number of people living in public and private institutions of 16 or more residents, and the 2 states with increases in 2006 housed less than 2% of all their residential service recipients in institutional settings. Altogether, 20 states reported 80% or more of their residential service recipients living in places of 6 or fewer residents; there were 6 in 1996. Altogether, 26 states reported fewer than 10% of all residents living in places of 16 or more residents as compared with 11 in 1996. In 2006, there were still 9 states with more than 25% of their residential service recipients in institutions of 16 or more residents, but notably fewer than the 25 in 1996. The number of people living in group homes of 7 to 15 residents remained little changed between 1996 and 2006 (a 7.4% increase to 60,547). In 1996, the 17,562 New Yorkers living in facilities of 7 to 15 residents made up 31.1% of the national total. In 2006, New York's 18,798 residents of facilities with 7 to 15 residents made up 31.0% of the national total as well as 41.6 % of all people receiving residential supports in New York.

Source: Prouty, R., Smith, G., & Lakin, K. C. (Eds.). (2007). Residential services for persons with developmental disabilities: Status and trends through 2006. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Research and Training Center on Community Living.