A case of a woman who is among the longest surviving people with Down syndrome was described. The life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome has increased more than six-fold to 56 years since the turn of the century. The literature regarding life expectancy for persons with Down syndrome was reviewed, and the implications regarding Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease were discussed.

This paper was supported by a grant from the Washington Square Foundation. We thank Sheila Hebein, executive director of the National Association for Down Syndrome, for the patient referral and editorial assistance. We also thank Elaine Greenbaum for editorial assistance.

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