People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often rely on Medicaid-funded services and supports to facilitate their daily living. The financial investment for these services is significant, yet little work has been conducted to understand how these investments affect life outcomes. This pilot study used a novel data integration approach to offer initial insights about how Medicaid expenditures relate to outcomes using Medicaid claims data, results of the National Core Indicators consumer survey, and data from the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS). Findings suggested that subpopulations of people with IDD who also had high behavioral needs or high medical needs had significantly higher expenditures than individuals with more typical SIS-assessed support needs. Regression analyses suggested mixed outcomes based on the factors we considered, including a finding that people with IDD who lived in sponsored residential care homes were more likely to engage in inclusive activities in the community than those who lived in larger congregate settings, or those who lived in a family home. Results of this pilot, when brought to scale, will be useful in examining the performance of state IDD service systems over time.