A highly accelerated life test (HALT) and highly accelerated stress test (HAST) procedure for ceramic capacitors developed by the author in the mid 1980's to early 1990's, and published in 1994, consists of a 400 Volt biased six (6) hour stress sort at 150°C (423K), a methanol current leakage test that located mechanical and structural cracks, a visual inspection at ten times (10×) magnification, and a capacitance and dissipation measurement before and after the test. In over thirty (30) years of use, there has never been a user reported in-circuit failure in industrial, military, and aerospace application at temperatures as high as 500°C (773K). However, reviewing user feedback, two concerns with the original sorting procedure are the stress is performed at 150°C (423K), and the lack of a more detailed ceramic capacitor electrical model. To address the first, the low aging temperature, the stress temperature was increased from 150°C to 300°C, in order to age ceramic solid state crystal mineral phases that may change with temperature. The test results for X7R and NP0/COG multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) at 300°C, are compared to the test results using the original HALT/HAST procedure at 150°C. Differences between X7R/NP0/COG and porcelain capacitors are discussed when applicable. Further, a more detailed ceramic capacitor electrical model that represents the physical and electrical characteristics of the ceramic capacitors is presented, including the electrical current leakage effects with temperature, and the carbonized residue effects from the manufacturing process.
Biography: Harold Snyder is an internationally recognized expert in the design, simulation, development and manufacture of high temperature and extreme environment electronics, IC's, hybrids, multichip modules and systems. He is an applied scientist and consultant with over forty years of experience, and President of Physical Solutions, a Texas Company, that manufactures next generation military, robotic, aerospace, super computers, downhole tools, sensors and power control system solutions to 500°C.