Renal cell carcinoma with level IV tumor thrombus is a condition necessitating aggressive surgical management. Many solid organ malignancies often benefit from neoadjuvant treatments for tumor debulking and improvement of surgical outcomes. However, neoadjuvant treatments for renal cell carcinoma have been limited by its resistance to traditional chemotherapy and radiation. Emerging treatment modalities, such as immunotherapies, are exciting new options that may be therapeutically effective. The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab has exhibited success in managing metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Limited data exist for its use in nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus. This case illustrates the use of nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy in delaying tumor growth, producing observable tumor thrombus histologic and radiologic treatment changes, and, most importantly, facilitating a less invasive surgical approach of a level IV renal cell carcinoma tumor thrombus.

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Author notes

V. A. Master and B. N. Schmeusser are co-first authors.

Competing Interests

Source of Support: None. Conflict of Interest: None.

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