Aim: Our aim was to compare the short and long term clinical outcomes of HbsAg(+) renal transplant recipients with HbsAg(-) recipients. Patients and Methods: Two hundered and four patients who underwent renal transplantation in our center between 2001 and 2014 were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1: HbsAg(-) group (n=136) and Group 2: HbsAg(+) group (n=68). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of lymphocyte cross matches, numbers of mismatches, immunosuppressive treatment protocols and induction treatments. In HbsAg(+) group, 51 patients were HBV DNA(+), 64 patients were HbeAg(-) and 4 patients were HbeAg(+). Fifty-seven (83.8%) patients were treated with Lamivudine, 4 (5.9%) patients with Entecavir and 7 (10.3%) patients with Tenofovir for Hepatitis B infection. Graft and patient survival rates, graft functions, acute hepatitis rates, acute rejection rates and other clinical outcomes of the groups were compared. Results: Demographic data and immuologic risk profiles of the groups were similar. Acute rejection rates, graft survival rates and patient survival rates were similar. Acute hepatitis rates, glomerular filtration rates on the last controls and delayed graft function rates were higher in Group 2, while chronic allograft disfunction and new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) rates were similar between the groups. Conclusion: Our study revealed that, graft and patient survival and acute rejection rates were similar between HbsAg(+) and HbsAg(-) recipients, while acute hepatitis rate was higher in HbsAg(+) recipients.

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