Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the factors effecting disease recurrence and graft survival in patients who developed end stage renal disease (ESRD) due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and underwent renal transplantation (Rtx). Methods: A total of 37 patients with FSGS (Female/Male: 10/27) who underwent Rtx in our transplant center between 2001 and 2014 were included in the study. The patients were diagnosed with FSGS by biopsy. Comparative analyses were performed in order to determine the factors effecting disease recurrence and graft survival. Plasmapheresis was performed with 40 ml/kg plasma. The diagnosis of the recurrence of FSGS and the acute rejections were also confirmed by biopsy. Results: Statistical analyses revealed that, recurrence rates were higher in Rtx recipients from deceased donor (deceased donor vs. living donor, 2 (50.0%) vs. 3 (9.1%), p=0.024). However, no correlation was found between recurrence and renal replacement treatment (RRT) methods, duration of RRT, preoperative or postoperative prophilactic plasmapheresis, the presence of preoperative nephrotic proteinuria, donor's or recipient's age or gender, kinship with donor, time interval between development of FSGS and ESRD, or performing native nephrectomy. Graft survival rates were higher in Rtx patients which were transplanted from living donor, first degree relatives and in patients without recurrence. Conclusion: In countries where organ donation is insufficient, living donors can be used with a low risk of recurrence for Rtx candidates with FSGS. Also, grafts from living donors, particularly from first degree relatives, have higher survival rates.

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