The cleaning and rehabilitation of oiled wildlife, especially waterfowl, has been one of our most difficult environmental problems to solve. It is plagued by controversy, emotion, apathy, and a host of biological unknowns. Costs have been high and survival rates low. This paper discusses the efforts taken by organizations and individuals in recent years to reverse this trend. It assesses biological problems and outlines research results. It analyzes people problems and wildlife contingency planning and presents a review of recent accomplishments in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain.