Oil exploration and production results in various problems ranging from oil spills, gas flaring, habitat destruction, air and water pollution as well as land degradation. In this work oil spill will be singled out as main topic of discussion as it is one of the area in the oil industry that is been affecting the industry seriously in recent years. Oil spill can cause colossal damage which includes destruction of economic and social activities. The problems culminates into several impacts which include health, environmental, economic and social impacts. Over the years, so much attention is been given to the environmental and health impact of these spills. This work is going to go beyond this environmental and health impacts to the economic and social impacts. Economic impacts of oil spills generally include cost of clean-up and compensation, damage to agricultural lands, fishery and wildlife. Social impact on the other hand includes community conflicts, violence and frustration which leads to militancy, reduction in tourism and hospitality industries. The social and economic impacts actually go together in the sense that social impacts most times affects the economy. For instance, social impacts on tourism and hospitality industries causes reduction in jobs, poverty and revenue. In Nigeria, the impacts of oil spill appear more devastating owing to the fact that it is a developing country and that there is always political crisis in the country. Spills have caused deaths, destruction of farmlands, destruction of fishing industry, destruction of tourism facilities and cultural areas. In the Niger Delta Region, one can say that the impacts take different dimensions are many as spill and subsequent pollution is believed to be one of the main causes of militancy in the Niger Delta. This work looks at the socio-economic impacts of spills holistically and socio-economic impact specifically on the Niger Deltans and proffer solutions. A comparative approach will be used to analyse how socio-economic impacts of oil spills is being dealt with in some selected jurisdictions and the lessons Nigeria can learn from it putting into consideration the socio-economic and political situations. In doing that, formidable options available to Niger Deltans who are victims of oil spills will be explored. This will include options that will make the spillers accountable and responsible.

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