Ultrasonic joining is a common industrial process. To build electrical connections in the electronics industry, uni-axial and torsional ultrasonic vibration have been used to join different types of workpieces for decades. Many influencing factors like ultrasonic power, bond normal force, bond duration and frequency are known to have a high impact on bond quality and reliability. Multi-dimensional bonding has been investigated in the past to increase ultrasonic power and consequently bond strength. This contribution is focused on the comparison of circular, multi-frequency planar and uniaxial vibration trajectories used for ultrasonic bonding of copper pins on copper substrate. Bond quality was analyzed by shear tests, scanning acoustic microscopy and interface cross-sections.

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