Survival times and mortality rates in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) have been infrequently reported in the literature. This study evaluates survival and mortality in a large group of dogs with IMHA. The association of age, sex, and breed with IMHA was evaluated by comparing affected dogs to control dogs admitted to the hospital during the same time period. Treatment regimens were reviewed to determine the effects of different agents upon survival of dogs with IMHA during hospitalization and after discharge. Median survival times for each treatment group were 57 days (prednisone), 28 days (prednisone, cyclophosphamide), 974 days (prednisone, azathioprine), 15 days (prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine), and one day (no treatment). Overall mortality rate in the population of dogs studied was 70%. Twenty-nine (41.4%) dogs either died or were euthanized while hospitalized. Forty-one (59%) dogs were discharged from the hospital. Of the dogs discharged, 10 died within the first month, another five died within three months, and another five died within a year of discharge due to assumed complications of therapy or relapses of IMHA.

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