An 11-year-old, castrated, male domestic shorthair cat was presented for hematuria and pollakiuria. The cat had a marked thrombocytopenia, and a bone-marrow core biopsy demonstrated megakaryocytic hyperplasia with many megakaryocyte-associated neutrophils (i.e., emperipolesis). On peripheral blood, collected at initial presentation, what appeared to be platelets were noted to be within or adherent to occasional neutrophils. The thrombocytopenia was idiopathic in that no definitive cause could be found. However, platelet concentrations appeared to increase and decrease in response to changes in prednisone and cyclosporine therapy, suggesting a possible immune-mediated pathogenesis. As tests to detect increased feline platelet-associated antibodies are unavailable, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia can only be tentatively diagnosed in cats by exclusion and response to therapy.

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