Case records of 232 dogs and 29 cats with neutropenia were reviewed to examine the spectrum of underlying etiologies causing the neutropenia. Six etiological categories included nonbacterial infectious disease; increased demand due to marked inflammation, bacterial sepsis, or endotoxemia; drug-associated neutropenia; primary bone-marrow disease; immune-mediated neutropenia; and diseases of unclear etiology. The largest single category associated with the development of neutropenia was nonbacterial infectious disease (e.g., feline leukemia virus [FeLV], feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV], histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and parvovirus), with parvovirus infection accounting for 47.1% of all cases. The least common (0.38%) cause was naturally occurring immune-mediated neutropenia.

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