The results of vulvoplasty were evaluated in 34 dogs that underwent surgery at the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1987 and 1999. Case records were evaluated, and clients were interviewed by telephone. The most common clinical signs of a juvenile or recessed vulva at initial examination were perivulvar dermatitis in 59% (20/34) of dogs and urinary incontinence and chronic urinary tract infection (UTI), each present in 56% (19/34) of dogs. Other common complaints included pollakiuria, irritation, and vaginitis. Most dogs developed clinical signs before 1 year of age. All dogs except one bichon frise were medium to giant breeds, suggesting that vulvar conformation may be related to growth rate or body conformation; prior ovariohysterectomy did not appear to be an influencing factor. Eighty-two percent of owners rated the outcome of the surgery as at least satisfactory. The incidence of urinary incontinence was reduced by vulvoplasty; however, it remained the most common residual sign after surgery, suggesting a multifactorial etiology. The incidences of UTI, vaginitis, and external irritation were greatly reduced after surgery.

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