Hemoptysis, the expectoration of blood or bloody mucus from the respiratory tract at or below the larynx, was retrospectively evaluated in 36 dogs. Cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea were common historical and physical examination signs. Anemia was documented in 11 dogs, but was severe in only one dog. Other clinicopathological findings reflected the underlying diseases. All thoracic radiographs obtained were abnormal; alveolar and interstitial patterns were most common. Diseases predisposing to hemoptysis included bacterial bronchopneumonia (n=7), neoplasia (n=5), trauma (n=5), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (n=4), heartworm disease (n=4), rodenticide poisoning (n=3), lung-lobe torsion (n=1), left-sided congestive heart failure (n=1), pulmonary hypertension (n=1), and foreign-body pneumonia (n=1). Four additional dogs had more than one underlying disease process. Nine dogs were either euthanized or died in the hospital during the initial visit. While at least half of the 27 dogs discharged went on to completely recover, five dogs discharged were known to have either died or been euthanized as a result of their disease in <6 months.

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