Cruciate disease is a common cause of chronic lameness in dogs. Midsubstance rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) arises from progressive pathological failure, often under conditions of normal loading in adult dogs with CCL instability. A high risk of rupture is associated with inflammation of the synovium and adaptive or degenerative changes in the cells and matrix of the CCL. In contrast, CCL rupture in puppies is usually associated with traumatic injury and avulsion of the CCL from its sites of attachment.

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