A 6-year-old, spayed female rottweiler was presented for facial enlargement from swelling of the maxilla and mandible. The dog was fed a homemade diet deficient in calcium and vitamin D, suggesting that rubber jaw syndrome was a secondary nutritional disorder. Radiographic and tomodensitometric examinations revealed diffuse bone resorption in the skull. The plasma parathormone concentration was high, and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was low. Based on these findings, nutritional calcium and vitamin D deficiency associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed. Dietary correction resulted in clinical and biological improvement, with an increase in skull mineralization.

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