Three dogs were examined several years following implantation of transvenous, single-lead, endocardial, right-ventricular permanent pacing systems for signs consistent with cranial vena caval syndrome. Angiograms performed in all dogs revealed filling defects within the cranial vena cava and, in some instances, intracardiac filling defects. Medical therapy was instituted in two dogs, with one surviving several weeks. One dog underwent surgery to address intra-cardiac thrombosis but did not survive the immediate postoperative period. Postmortem examinations were performed in two dogs and confirmed cranial vena caval and intracardiac thrombosis. Cranial vena caval thrombosis associated with transvenous pacing leads appears to carry significant morbidity and mortality.

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