Six English bulldog and nine nonbrachycephalic puppies with bronchopneumonia and radiographs were evaluated. Relative size of the trachea was measured by the tracheal diameter (TD) and the thoracic inlet distance (TI), expressed as a ratio (TD:TI). At diagnosis of bronchopneumonia, there was a significant difference between the median TD:TI of the bulldog puppies (0.07; range, 0.06–0.09) and that of the nonbrachycephalic puppies (0.14; range, 0.11–0.25; P=0.0004). At the same time, there was also a significant difference between the mean TD:TI of bulldog puppies (0.07±0.01) and that of nonbrachycephalic puppies (0.15±0.05; P=0.002). Follow-up radiographs showed significant increases in TD:TI ratio in all six bulldogs (median TD:TI = 0.14; range, 0.12–0.18; P=0.03 and mean TD:TI = 0.15±0.02; P=0.0007), whereas the ratio did not change significantly in the nonbrachycephalic control group (median TD:TI = 0.17; range, 0.14–0.22; P=0.10 and mean TD:TI = 0.18±0.03; P=0.06). Tracheal hypoplasia in some brachycephalic dogs might partially or completely resolve with growth to mature body size.

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