Although left- or right-sided pneumonectomy is tolerated by normal dogs, complications impacting the respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems are not uncommon. Pneumonectomy in dogs results in secondary changes in the remaining lung, which include: decreased compliance and vital capacity; and increased pulmonary vascular resistance potentially leading to right ventricular hypertrophy. Such alterations make the anesthetic management of an animal with one lung particularly challenging. This report describes a dog with a history of left pneumonectomy due to Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia 3 yr before presentation. The dog presented with a vaginal wall prolapse, and surgical resection of the protruding vaginal wall, ovariectomy, and prophylactic gastropexy were performed. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol and was maintained with isoflurane using intermittent positive pressure ventilation and a constant rate infusion of fentanyl. Epidural anesthesia was also used. Recovery and postoperative management were uncomplicated. Intensive hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring and appropriate response and treatment of any detected abnormalities, taking into consideration the pathophysiologic alterations occurring in a pneumonectomized animal, are required for successful perianesthetic management.

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