This retrospective study describes toxicity associated with a protocol of lomustine (CCNU) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) in dogs with lymphoma. CCNU was administered per os (PO) at a targeted dosage of 60 mg/m2 body surface area on day 0, CTX was administered PO at a targeted dosage of 250 mg/m2 divided over days 0 through 4, and all dogs received prophylactic antibiotics. Ninety treatments were given to the 57 dogs included in the study. Neutropenia was the principal toxic effect, and the overall frequency of grade 4 neutropenia after the first treatment of CCNU/CTX was 30% (95% confidence interval, 19–43%). The mean body weight of dogs with grade 4 neutropenia (19.7 kg ± 13.4 kg) was significantly less than the mean body weight of dogs that did not develop grade 4 neutropenia (31.7 kg ± 12.4 kg; P = .005). One dog (3%) developed hematologic changes suggestive of hepatotoxicity. No dogs had evidence of either renal toxicity or hemorrhagic cystitis. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were uncommon. On the basis of the findings reported herein, a dose of 60 mg/m2 of CCNU combined with 250 mg/m2 of CTX (divided over 5 days) q 4 wk is tolerable in tumor-bearing dogs.

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