A peripheral nerve sheath tumor was diagnosed in a female, neutered Labrador retriever with a 6 mo history of coughing, retching, ptyalism, and left-sided Horner's syndrome. Computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a mass lesion between the carotid artery and esophagus in the mid-cervical region. Exploratory surgery was performed and an 18 cm section of thickened vagus nerve was excised. Histopathological findings and immunochemistry staining confirmed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The tumor showed microscopic signs of malignancy, but there were no macroscopic signs of local extension or distant metastasis. This report documents a peripheral nerve sheath tumor of rare origin in dogs.

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