Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common cause of acquired urinary incontinence in dogs. The pathogenesis of USMI is multifactorial and complex. Studies have shown variable results regarding the effects and timing of sterilization on the incidence of USMI. Diagnosis of USMI is often based on history, physical examination, and elimination of other differentials. Treatment options for USMI include medications, such as α-adrenergic agents and estrogen products, minimally-invasive urethral bulking procedures, surgical procedures (e.g., indwelling urethral occluders), or combination therapy. The overall prognosis for USMI is typically fair to good with long-term therapy.

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