In dogs with leptospirosis, doxycycline therapy is recommended as the preferred therapy for its ability to eliminate the organism from all tissues, including the renal tubules. Elimination of organisms from the renal tubules terminates leptospiruria and prevents transmission of the organism. This report describes the discovery of persistent leptospiruria in the face of therapy with doxycycline in four dogs and enrofloxacin in one dog. Leptospiruria was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing for pathogenic leptospires in all five dogs. In two dogs, leptospiruria resolved after a change in therapy to enrofloxacin. In three dogs, doxycycline and/or enrofloxacin were ineffective at eliminating leptospiruria, which then resolved after therapy with clarithromycin. Pet owners could be at risk as persistent leptospiruria poses a potential zoonotic risk. The potential reasons for persistent leptospiruria as demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction testing are discussed.

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