Anicteric gallbladder rupture has been rarely described in veterinary medicine, and, generally, it has been related to gallbladder wall necrosis secondary to gallbladder mucocele. A 5 yr old, male, neutered Labrador retriever presented for acute onset anorexia, lethargy, and vomiting. Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on the ultrasonographic findings and bactibilia, and, consequently, medical treatment was established. Despite improvement of the patient, a focal ultrasound of the hepatobiliary tract was performed 72 hr after admission for reassessment, revealing gallbladder wall thickening and abdominal effusion. Intracellular bacteria were present in nondegenerated neutrophils, and the effusion was categorized as septic exudate, compatible with septic peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed an anicteric gallbladder rupture potentially secondary to cholecystitis and/or previous cholecystocentesis. The patient was not icteric the day of the surgery, serum bilirubin was within normal limits, abdominal fluid bilirubin concentration was below that of serum, and no bile pigment was detected; however, bile acids were significantly higher in the abdominal effusion compared with the serum concentration. This case describes an anicteric gallbladder rupture in a dog with concomitant cholecystitis and raises the question about the sensitivity of bile acid evaluation as a tool for diagnosis of gallbladder rupture and bile peritonitis in dogs.