Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dogs that has been associated with various biochemical changes and comorbid diseases, but hematologic abnormalities have been rarely reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate complete blood count and blood smear alterations and to describe their relationship with, and incidence of comorbid diseases in, diabetic dogs. Three-hundred twelve diabetic dogs, 286 dogs diagnosed with systemic, nondiabetic illnesses, and 506 healthy dogs were identified during the study period. Groups were compared using contingency tables and logistic regression. Associations between statistically significant complete blood count and blood smear alterations and comorbidities were evaluated using multivariable analysis. High-grade codocytosis and anisocytosis were identified more frequently in diabetic dogs, whereas high-grade reactive lymphocytosis and keratocytosis were identified less frequently (P < .001). Diabetic dogs with high-grade codocytosis had lower red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit and higher white blood cell counts (P < .001). Diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed more frequently in diabetic dogs with high-grade codocytosis when compared with those with low-grade codocytosis (P < .001) or when compared with any other cell morphologic alterations. This study suggests that blood smear analysis should be a routine part of the evaluation of diabetic dogs.

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