The prognosis for bile duct carcinoma in dogs is generally believed to be poor. However, only a few studies have evaluated the postoperative outcomes in such cases. The objective of this case series was to describe the postoperative outcomes of localized intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in dogs. The electronic medical records of 16 dogs with bile duct carcinoma were reviewed, and 6 dogs were included in the study. All cases were diagnosed as bile duct carcinoma using postoperative pathology, and five of them had already been diagnosed using preoperative core biopsy. The tumors in all of the dogs were confirmed as completely resected on histopathological examination. Two dogs received toceranib following the surgery. The median follow-up time was 693 days (range, 420–1386 days), with a median survival time of 894 days (range, 420–1386 days). Local recurrence or distant metastases were detected in two of the six dogs (33%) on 354 and 398 days following surgery, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 492 days (range, 354–1386 days). In conclusion, dogs with localized intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma had a good prognosis following complete surgical resection.