The mediastinal serous cavity (MSC)—well documented but seldom recognized in the caudal mediastinum—is embryologically derived from the omental bursa. Mesothelioma arising from the MSC in two dogs is described. Both dogs presented with acute life-threatening hemorrhagic pleural effusion. Contrast computed tomography revealed a large solitary spherical-to-cylindrical tumor in the caudal mediastinum with variably thick, contrast-enhancing walls with lobular to frond-like proliferations that arose circumferentially and projected internally into a single, variably sized, fluid-attenuating lumen. The wall and lumen corresponded to the serous membrane and serous cavity of the MSC. Surgical exploration confirmed that both tumors arose from the mediastinum. Both had similar histologic findings, and special stains were necessary for definitive diagnosis. The tumor was nonresectable in one dog, and it was euthanized intraoperatively. The other survived 7 mo. An MSC mesothelioma should be considered a possible cause of hemothorax in dogs that may be detected on thoracic radiography and computed tomography. Differential diagnoses include esophageal foreign body or neoplasm, paraesophageal diaphragmatic hernia, MCS empyema, and pulmonary adenocarcinoma, with thoracic computed tomography helping to rule out foreign body and diaphragmatic hernia. For confirmed neoplasms, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry should be performed to differentiate between mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma.