Normal urine residual volume (URV) in dogs has not previously been established by direct measurement. Twenty-two client-owned normal healthy dogs (8 female spayed, 12 male castrated, 2 male intact) without history of urinary abnormalities were included. Dogs were walked outside for 5 min to allow for natural voiding, immediately followed by urinary bladder ultrasound and urinary catheterization. The URV was recorded, and the ultrasound images were used to estimate URV for each dog. There was no significant difference between male and female URV; therefore, all data were pooled. With a 90% confidence interval, URV was 0–0.47 mL/kg with a mean URV of 0.21 mL/kg and a median value of 0.175 mL/kg. There was no significant difference between the measured URV and the ultrasound-determined URV. This case series supports previously established normal URV in the dog; however, a reference interval based on a larger population of dogs with further evaluation of body size/weight, sex, and neuter status is recommended to be established for use in clinical setting to differentiate normal urination from urinary retention in patients.

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