It has been reported that hypertriglyceridemia can partially mediate between diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatitis in dogs, implying that another mediator, such as chronic hyperglycemia, might exist. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between hyperglycemia and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentration in diabetic dogs. This retrospective cohort study included 26 client-owned diabetic dogs, divided according to their serum fructosamine levels (<500 μmol/L = well-controlled DM group; ≥500 μmol/L = untreated or poorly controlled DM group). Five of the 26 DM dogs (19.2%) had serum cPLI concentrations consistent with pancreatitis, among which two showed ultrasonographic evidence of pancreatitis without clinical signs. The serum cPLI concentrations (median [interquartile range]) were significantly higher in the untreated or poorly controlled group (520 μg/L [179.76–1000 μg/L]) than in the well-controlled group (77 μg/L [32.22–244.6 μg/L], P = 0.0147). The serum fructosamine concentration was positively correlated with the serum cPLI concentration (r = 0.4816; P = 0.0127). Multivariate analysis revealed serum triglyceride and fructosamine concentrations were associated with the serum cPLI concentration. In conclusion, this study suggests that chronic hyperglycemia may induce pancreatic inflammation in diabetic dogs; however, the clinical significance of increased cPLI concentration is unknown.