Ependymal cysts represent congenital brain malformations rarely described in human medicine, where surgical resection is the treatment of choice. In veterinary medicine, only three cases have been previously reported, with one partially resected with surgery. A 6 yr old entire male American Staffordshire terrier was referred with a 4 mo history of incoordination and collapsing episodes with extensor rigidity. Neurological examination localized the lesion to the left central vestibular system and cerebellum. A brain computed tomography scan showed a hypoattenuating lesion with peripheral contrast enhancement in the fourth ventricle consistent with a cyst and secondary hydrocephalus. Treatment with prednisone was initiated, but despite an initial improvement, neurologic signs recurred and a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cyst was performed. The cyst was first drained, and the capsule was carefully resected. The histopathological evaluation revealed a simple cubic to cylindrical epithelium with apical cilia and loose surrounding fibrillar tissue consistent with an intraventricular ependymal cyst. Four and a half years after surgery, the dog only shows short episodes of balance loss when turning abruptly but is otherwise neurologically normal. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported ependymal cyst in the fourth ventricle of a dog with successful surgical resection.

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