A 5 yr old castrated male bichon frise presented with chronic bilateral uveitis that had previously been controlled with systemic steroid administration for 6 mo, resulting in weight gain, polyuria, and polydipsia. To control the uveitis without systemic side effects, oral cyclosporine was started after discontinuing oral steroid, but discontinued one month later because of severe vomiting. Leflunomide (2 mg/kg q 12 hr) was initiated, and the uveitis symptoms resolved after 2 mo. The dose was tapered according to the remission of clinical signs, with no relapse during the following 13 mo. Leflunomide therapy was then discontinued due to vomiting caused by severe gastroenteritis and pancreatitis, and topical prednisolone monotherapy was continued . At 8 mo after discontinuation of leflunomide, bilateral uveitis recurred, and leflunomide therapy was resumed. However, the patient lost vision due to the progression of clinical signs at 33 mo after commencing leflunomide, and evisceration of the glaucomatous right eye was performed at 43 mo. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and melanin-laden macrophages in the uveal tissue, and the patient was diagnosed with immune-mediated uveitis. This case indicated that oral leflunomide may be a viable treatment option for canine idiopathic immune-mediated uveitis.

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